Aneurysms (enlargement) of the aorta (main artery of the body) carries a risk of sudden death as they may rupture even though the person may have no symptoms and be completely unaware of the problem. When an aneurysm of this important artery occurs in one of its parts (aortic root, ascending aorta, arch of aorta, descending aorta) it is usually identified following a scan. The operation involves replacing the enlarged area of the artery using an artificial substitute (Dacron, Gortex). Strategies to protect the brain are crucial to the success of the operation in order to reduce the risk of neurological complications. Mario Petrou is a specialist in aortic aneurysm surgery and is Head of Program for Complex Aortic Surgery in Oxford. Mario Petrou also has experience in the Personalised External Aortic Root Support (PEARS) procedure in young patients with Marfan syndrome who have isolated aortic root aneurysms. This operation is offered by only a select groups of surgeons in the world.